Mariner brags about stealing a Professor’s “old special car” and driving it into “the bay.” The bay she’s talking about is likely the Golden Gate since that’s the only bay near Starfleet Academy. Stealing an antique car seems to reference the 2009 Star Trek reboot in which young James T. Kirk stole a 1965 Chevrolet Corvette Stingray and drove it off a cliff.
“Equal Parts Accelerated Growth and Reverse Aging”
The ringleader of the Division 14 patients has his body equally divided between one half that has “accelerated growth” and another that is affected by “reverse aging.” This makes him half old-man and half little-kid.
The accelerated growth thing references the TOS episode “The Deadly Years” and also the TNG episode “Unnatural Selection.” In both episodes, crew members age rapidly, way ahead of their time.
The “reverse aging” effect references the TNG episodes “Too Short a Season,” and “Rascals.” In “Too Short a Season,” a Starfleet Admiral rapidly de-ages during a big mission, while in “Rascals,” Picard, Ro, Keiko, and Guinan are all rematerialized as 12-year-olds. (the Lower Decks character says he has to live out his days as “half a rascal”).