How Planes Keep Flying After an Engine Catches Fire

It seems like a nightmare state of affairs for airplane passengers: You have a look out the window in between mini-pretzel bites to see an engine cloaked in flames, shedding items of metallic mid-flight from 10,000 ft within the air. That’s precisely the sight that greeted passengers of United Flight 328 on Saturday not lengthy after departing Denver for Honolulu.

A roughly 500,000-pound jet with one engine appears as seemingly a candidate to fly as a condor with one wing. And but for all of the hazard posed by the flambé Boeing 777 this weekend—and there was loads, notably to the Denver suburbs subjected to large-scale particles shed by the airplane’s Pratt & Whitney PW4077 engine—staying within the air was extraordinarily low on the record. In reality, its remaining engine is theoretically sturdy sufficient to have made the rest of the flight by itself.

That wasn’t all the time the case for big plane. For many years, the Federal Aviation Administration didn’t enable twin-engine planes to make journeys over an hour, a lot much less from the Midwest to a Pacific paradise. “It’ll be a cold day in hell before I let twins fly long-haul over-water routes,” then-FAA administrator Lynn Helms insisted when Boeing requested the FAA to vary the rule in 1980, in line with Robert J. Sterling’s 1991 historical past of the aerospace large. If an engine did fail, you’d have at the very least two others to depend on.

Eventually the FAA relented, increasing the 60-minute rule to 120 after which 180 minutes because the ’80s wore on. Credit improved engines for the change of coronary heart, somewhat than an elevated urge for food for threat.

Passengers on United Flight 328 had been alarmed to search out the left engine had caught hearth a couple of minutes after takeoff.

Photograph: Chad Schnell/Getty Images

“One engine has to have enough thrust to keep the airplane going, and even climbing if it needs to,” says Ella Atkins, an aerospace engineer on the University of Michigan. That applies even to a worst-case state of affairs, she says, similar to shedding an engine whilst you’re within the strategy of taking off. The remaining engine must be sturdy sufficient, if required, to get you airborne by itself.

Which is to not say that engine failure is with out consequence, particularly when a hearth is concerned. It introduces a number of issues irrespective of the scale of the plane or the complexity of its automated techniques. “Many pilots go through their entire career without a single engine failure, even though we train for it,” says Bob Meder, chairman of the National Association of Flight Instructors. “In general, you do your memory items first for the airplane you’re flying. You’ve got an engine fire, you secure the engine and stop the flow fuel to the engine.”

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